Source References

Web Sites

Pan American Health Organization (World Health Organization)


Adams, David P. "Malaria, Labor, and population distribution in Costa Rica: A Biohistorical Perspective." Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 27: 1 (1996): 75-85.

Alchon, Suzanne Austin. A Pest in the Land: New World Epidemics in a Global Perspective. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2003.

Allende, Salvador. La Realidad Medico-Social Chilena. Santiago: Ministerio de Salubridad, 1939.

Armus, Diego. "Disease in the Historiography of Modern Latin America," in Disease in the History of Modern Latin America: From Malaria to AIDS. ed. by D. Armus. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003. p. 1-24.

Armus, Diego. Disease in the History of Modern Latin America: From Malaria to AIDS. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.

Arnold, David. Warm Climates and Western Medicine: The Emergence of Tropical Medicine, 1500-1900. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996.

Balick, Michael J. and Elaine Elizabetsky and Sarah A. Laird. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Armando Soloranzo. "The Hook of Hookworm: Public Health and the Politics of Eradication in Mexico." Western Medicine as Contested Knowledge. Andrew Cunningham, ed. Manchester: St. Martin's Press, 1997. pg. 147-171.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. "A Revolution in Rural Health?: The Struggle Over Local Health Units in Mexico, 1928-1940." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 53:1 (1998): 43-76.

Blake, Stanley S. "The medicalization of nordestinos: public health and regional identity in northeastern Brazil, 1889-1930," The Americas. 60: 2 (2003): 217-248.

Bordi de Ragucci, Olga. Colera e Inmigracion. Buenos Aires: Leviatan, 1992.

Briggs, Charles L. and Clara Mantini. "The Indians Accept Death as a Normal, Natural Event: Institutional Authority in a Venezuelan Cholera Epidemic." Social Identities. 3: 3 (1997): 439-469.

Chalhoub, Sidney. "The Politics of Disease Control: Yellow Fever and Race in Nineteenth Century Rio de Janeiro." Journal of Latin American Studies. 25: 5 (1993): 441-463.

Cirillo, Vincent J. "Fever and Reform: The Typhoid Epidemic in the Spanish-American War." Journal of History of Medicine and Allied Science. 55 (2000): 363-397.

Clement, Jean Pierre. "El Nacimiento de la Higiene Urbana en la America Espanola del Siglo XVIII," Revista de Indias. 49 (1983): 77-94.

Colson, Audrey Butt and Cesareo de Armellada. "An Amerindian derivation for Latin American Creole illnesses and their treatment," Social Sceince and Medicine. 17: 17 (1983): 1229-1248.

Coutinho, Marilia. "Ninety Years of Chagas Disease: A Success Story at the Periphery." Social Studies of Science. 29: 4 (August 1999): 519-549.

Cueto, Marcos. "Andean Biology in Peru: Scientific Styles on the Periphery." Isis. 80 (1989): 640-658.

Cueto, Marcos. "Sanitation from Above: Yelow Fever and Foreign Intervention in Peru, 1919-1922." Hispanic American Historical Review. 72 (1992): 1-22.

Cueto, Marcos. "Social Medicine and 'Leprosy' in the Peruvian Amazon." The Americas. 61: 1 (July 2004): 55-80.

Cueto, Marcos. "Stigma and blame during an epidemic: Cholera in Peru, 1991." In Diseases in the History of Modern Latin America. D. Armus, ed. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003. p. 268-289.

Cueto, Marcos. "Tropical Medicine and Bacteriology in Boston and Peru: Studies of Carrion's Disease in the Early 20th Century." Medical History. 40 (1996): 344-364.

Cueto, Marcos. Cold War, Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955-1975. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 

Cueto, Marcos. El Regreso de las Epidemias: Salud y Sociedad en el Peru del siglo veinte. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 1997.

Cueto, Marcos. Salud, Cultura y Sociedad en America Latina. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos y Organizazion Panamericana de la Salud, 1996.

Cueto, Marcos. The Return of Epidemics, Health and Society in Peru during the Twentieth Century. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001.

Cumper, G.E. "Jamaica: A Case Study in Health Development." Social Science and Medicine. 17: 24 (1983): 1983-1993.

Cunningham, Andrew. "La Transformacion de la Peste: El Laboratorio y la Identidad de las Enfermedades Infecciosas." Dynamis. 11 (1991): 27-72.

Delaporte, Francois. The History of Yellow Fever: An Essay on the Birth of Tropical Medicine. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.

Farmer, Paul. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues. Berkely: University of California Press, 1999.

Fowler, Murray E. and Zalmir S. Cubas. Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 2001.

Gomez-Dantes, Hector and Anne-Emanuelle Birn. "Malaria and Social Movements in Mexico: The Last 60 Years." Parassitologia. 42 (2000): 69-85.

Guy, Donna J. "Emilio and Gabriela Coni: reformers, public health, and working women." In The Human Tradition in Latin America: The Nineteenth Century. edited by J. Ewell and W.H. Beezley. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1989. p. 233-248.

Kapeluz-Poppi, Ana Maria. "Rural Health and State Construction in Post-Revolutionary Mexico: The Nicolaita Project for rural medical services." The Americas. 58: 2 (2001): 261-283.

Kropf, Simone P. and Nara Azavedo and Luiz O. Ferreira. "Biomedical research and Public Health in Brazil: the case of Chagas' Disease (1909-1950)." Social History of Medicine. 16: 1 (2003): 111-130.

Laurell, Asa Cristina. "Crisis, Neoliberal Health Policy and Political Processes in Mexico." International Journal of Health Services. 21: 3 (1991): 457-470.

Leonard, Jonathan: "Research in the Argentine Outback: The Health Quest of Salvador Mazza." Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 26: 3 (1992): 256-270.

Loncarica, Alfredo G. Kohn and Abel Aguero. "Carlos Alberto Alvarado y los planes de salud rural: las condiciones del exito y del fracaso en tecnica medica." Saber y Tiempo. (1997): 489-496.

Lowy, Ilana. "What/who should be controlled? Opposition to yellow fever campaigns in Brazil, 1900-1939." Western Medicine as Contested Knowledge. New York: Manchester University Press, 1997. pg. 124-126.

Lowy, Ilana. "Yellow Fever in Rio de Janeiro and the Pasteur Institute Mission (1901-1905): The Transfer of Science to the Periphery." Medical History. 34 (1990): 144-163.

McNeill, J.R. "Yellow Jack and Geopolitics: Environment, Epidemics, and the Struggle for Empire in the American Tropics." In City, Country, Empire: Landscapes in Environmental History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburg Press, 2005.

Musgrove, Philip. "The Economic Crisis and its Impact on Health in Latin America and the Caribbean." International Journal of Health Services. 17: 3 (1987): 411-441.

Navarro, Vicente. "The Underdevelopment of Health or the Health of Underdevelopment: An Analysis of the Distribution of Human Health Resources in Latin America." Imperialism, Health, and Medicine. Farmingdale, NY: Baywood Publishing Company, 1981, 

Obregon, Diana. "Building National Medicine: Leprosy and Power in Colombia, 1870-1970." Social History of Medicine. 15: 1 (2002), 89-108.

Obregon, Diana. Batallas contra la lepra: Estado, medicina y ciencia en Colombia. Bogota: Banco de la Republica, 2002.

Packard, Randall M. "Malaria Dreams: Postwar Visions of Health and Development in the Third World." Medical Anthropology. 17 (1997): 279-296.

Parker, David S. "Civilizing the City of Kings: hygiene and housing in Lima." In Cities of Hope: People, Protests, and Progress in Urbanizing Latin America, 1870-1930. Edited by R. Pineo and J. Baer. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. p. 153-178.

Payne-Jackson, Arvilla and Mervyn C. Alleyne. Jamaica Folk Medicine: A Source Of Healing. Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2004.

Peard, Julian G. "Tropical Disorders and the Forging of a Brazilian Medical Identity, 1860-1890."