Source References

Web Sites

Indigenous Mathematics of Central and South America- Mathematics and the Liberal Arts (Truman State University): Bibliography and accompanying descriptions of books and articles related to the history of mathematics in Latin America.

The Quipucamayu (Sweet Briar College- Department of Spanish): Description of the Inca Quipu and its importance in Inca law, government, and mathematics.

Centro de Textiles Tradicionales del Cusco (CTTC)

Conservation and Technical Study of a Colonial Andean Tapestry (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Mathematics of the Incas (University of St. Andrews, Scotland)


Ascher, Marcia and Robert Ascher. Mathematics of the Incas: Code of the Quipu. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997.

Closs, Michael P. Native American Mathematics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.

Graubart, Karen B. "Weaving and Construction of a Gender Division of Labor in Early Colonial Peru." American Indian Quarterly. 24: 4 (Autumn 2000): 537-561.

Heckman, Andrea M. Woven Stories: Andean Textiles and Rituals. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2003.

Phipps, Elena. The Colonial Andes: Tapestries and Silverwork, 1530-1830. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004.

Quilter, Jeffrey. Narrative Threads: Accounting and Recounting in Andean Khipu. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Rodman, Amy Oakland and Vicki Cassman. "Andean Tapestry: Structure Informs the Surface." Art Journal. 54: 2, Conservation and Art History (Summer 1995): 33-39.

Salomon, Frank. The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.

Seibold, Katharine E. "Textiles and Cosmology in Choquecancha, Cuzco, Peru." In Andean Cosmologies Through Time: Persistence and Emergence. Eds. Robert V.H. Dover, Katharine E. Seibold, and John H. McDowell. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1

Thompson, Angela. Textiles of Central and South America. Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 2006.

Urton, Gary. "From Knots to Narratives: Reconstructing the Art of Historical Record Keeping in the Andes from Spanish Transcriptions of Inka Khipus."  Ethnohistory. 45: 3 (Summer 1998): 409-438.

Urton, Gary. Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003.

Urton, Gary. Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003. 

Films and Videos

Ancient Inca  (Schlessinger Media, 1998)

In the Shadow of the Incas (Films for the Humanities and Social Sciences, 1993)

Inca: Secrets of the Ancestors (Time-Life Video & Television, 1995)

Peruvian Weaving (Berkeley Media LLC, 1980)

Qeros: The Shape of Survival (Berkeley Media LLC, 1979)