Source References

Web Sites

Maya Civilization- Cosmology and Religion  (Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation): Descriptions of Maya beliefs and incorporation of cosmology and religion into their lives.

Maya Civilization- Astronomy (Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation): Description of Maya contributions and spiritual connections to astronomy.

Maya Civilization- The Maya Calendar (Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation): Description of the Maya-devised calendar and the spiritual significance of the numbers in the calendar.

The Maya Astronomy Page (Michielb): Explanation of the numbers and symbols used in Maya mathematics and astronomy.

The Maya Calendar (Maya World Studies Center): An in-depth description of the Maya Calendar, including historical background information and the day's date and significance on the Maya calendar.

The Maya Mathematical System (Maya World Studies Center): Detailed explanation of the Maya mathematical system, including explanation of symbols and Maya names for numbers.

Indigenous Mathematics of Central and South America- Mathematics and the Liberal Arts (Truman State University): Bibliography and accompanying descriptions of books and articles related to the history of mathematics in Latin America.

Mayan Mathematics (University of St. Andrews, Scotland)


Anderson, W. French. "Arithmetic in Maya Numerals." American Antiquity. 36: 1 (January 1971): 54-63.

Ascher, Marcia. "Before the Conquest." Mathematics Magazine. 65: 4 (October 1992): 211-218.

Aveni, Anthony F. Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980.

Barsh, Russel Lawrence. Counting, Computation, and the Calendar in Mesoamerica. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Children's Museum, 1965. 

Burke, James. Circles. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Calinger, Ronald S. A Contextual History of Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999. 

Closs, Michael P. Native American Mathematics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.

Hassig, Ross. Time, History, and Belief in Aztec and Colonial Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.

Hoffman, Mary Ann. History of the Maya: Using Computational Skills in Problem Solving. New York: PowerKids Press, 2005.

Leon-Portilla, Miguel. Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya. Second ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

Malmstrom, Vincent H. Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.

Milbrath, Susan. Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy, Folklore, and Calendars. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999.

Montgomery, Roger. Twenty Count: Secret Mathematical System of the Aztec-Maya. Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co, 1995.

Paxton, Meredith. The Cosmos of the Yucatec Maya: Cycles and Steps from the Madrid Codex. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001.

Read, Kay Almere. Time and Sacrifice in the Aztec Cosmos. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Rice, Prudence M. Maya Calendar Origins: Monuments, Mythistory, and the Materialization of Time. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.

Thompson, Sir John Eric Sidney. "Maya Astronomy." In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 276, no. 1257, The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World (May 2, 1974), p. 83-98.

Willson, Robert Wheeler. Astronomical Notes on the Maya Codices. London: Corinthian Press, 1940.

Films and Videos

Maya: Lords of the Jungle (PBS Home Video, 1997)

Maya: The Blood of Kings  (Time-Life Video & Television, 1995)