Source References

Web Sites

Expeditions: 150 Years of Smithsonian Research in Latin America (Smithsonian Institute)

Scientific Commission of the Pacific (undefined)


Aldrete, J. Antonio MD, MS. "Smallpox Vaccination in the Early 19th Centruy Using Live Carriers: The Travels of Francisco Xavier de Balmis." Southern Medical Journal. 97: 4 (April 2004): 375-378.

Balf, Todd. The Darkest Jungle: The True Story of the Darien Expedition and America's Ill-Fated Race to Connect the Seas. New York: Crown, 2003.

Barrera-Osorio, Antonio. Experiencing Nature: The Spanish American Empire and the Early Scientific Revolution. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.

Belluzzo, Ana Maria de Moraes. O Brasil dos viajantes. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Objetiva, 2000.

Bleichmar, Daniela.  "Painting as Exploration: Visualizing Nature in Eighteenth Century Colonial Science."  Colonial Latin American Review. 15: 1 (June 2006): 81-104.

De Vos, Paula S.  "Research, Development, and Empire: State Support of Science in the Later Spanish Empire."  Colonial Latin American Review. 15: 1 (June 2006): 55-79.

Engstrand. Iris H. W. Spanish Scientists in the New World: The Eighteenth-Century Expeditions. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981.

Fedlman, Lawrence H. Lost Shores, Forgotten Peoples: Spanish Explorations of the South East Maya Lowlands. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

Goodman, Edward J. The Explorers of South America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Herndon, William Lewis. Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. New York: Grove Press, 2000.

Lafuente, Antonio.  "Enlightenment in an Imperial Context: Local Science in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Hispanic World."  Osiris, 2nd Series. 15, Nature and Empire: Science and the Colonial Enterprise (2000): 155-173.

Maslow, Jonathan. Footsteps in the Jungle: Adventures in the Scientific Exploration of American Tropics. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.

Miller, Robert Ryal. Daily Life in Colonial Mexico: The Journey of Friar Ilarione Da Bergamo, 1761-1768. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000. 

Miller, Robert Ryal. For Science and National Glory: The Spanish Scientific Expedition to America, 1862-1866. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968.

Pyenson, Lewis. "Functionaries and Seekers in Latin America, Missionary Diffusion of the Exact Science, 1850-1930." Quipu. 2: 3 (1985): 387-420.

Raleigh, Sir Walter and Neil L. Whitehead. The Discoverie of the Large, Rich, and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

Salvatore, Ricardo D. "Local versus Imperial Knowledge: Reflections on Hiram Bingham and the Yale Peruvian Expedition." Nepantla: Views from South. 4: 1 (2003): 67-80.

Smith, Anthony. Explorers of the Amazon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Teresi, Dick. The Ancient Roots of Modern Science-- from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.



Films and Videos

Journey to a Thousand Rivers (Turner Home Entertainment, 1993)