Source References

Web Sites

Panama Canal Authority (Panama Canal Authority)

Canal Museum (

Panama Canal Museum  (Panama Canal Museum)


Balf, Todd. The Darkest Jungle: The True Story of the Darien Expedition and America's Ill-Fated Race to Connect the Seas. New York: Crown, 2003.

Cadbury, Deborah. Dreams of Iron And Steel: Seven Wonders of the Nineteenth Century, from the Building of the London Sewers to the Panama Canal. Philadelphia: Diane Publishing Company, 2004.

Chaves-Carbalo, Enrique. "Samuel T. Darling: Studies on Malaria and the Panama Canal," Bulletin for the History of Medicine. 54 (1980): 95-100.

Conniff, Michael L. Black Labor on a White Canal: Panama, 1904-1981. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.

Keller, Ulrich. The Building of the Panama Canal in Historic Photographs. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1984.

LaFeber, Walter. The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press USA, 1990.

Major, John. Prize Possession: The United States Government and the Panama Canal 1903-1979. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 

Mann, Elizabeth. The Panama Canal: The Story of how a jungle was conquered and the world made smaller. New York: Mikaya Press, 2006.

McCullough, David. The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal 1870-1914. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

McMillan, Robert R. Global Passage: Transformation of Panama and the Panama Canal. Charleston, SC: BookSurge LLC, 2006.

Roosevelt, Theodore. Correspondence Concerning the Convention Between the United States and Colombia for the Construction of an Interoceanic Canal Across the Isthmus of Panama. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1903.

Snapp, Jeremy S. and Gerald Fitzgerald Sherman. Destiny by Design : The Construction of the Panama Canal. Lopez Island, WA: Pacific Heritage Press, 2000.