Source References

Web Sites

Columbus and the Age of Discovery (Millersville University of Pennsylvania): Page dedicated to the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage.

The European Voyages of Exploration (Applied History Research Group): Site with essays, images, and artifacts from the era of European exploration.

Explorers of South America (Andre Engels)

Exploring the Early Americas (Library of Congress)

Champlain's America: New France and New England (The John Carter Brown Library)


Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Calloway, Colin G. New World's for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Canizares-Esguerra, Jorge. Nature, Empire, and Nation: Explorations of the History of Science in the Iberian World. Stanford: University of California Press, 2006.

Cipolla, Carlo M and Ricardo Gonzalez. Conquistadores, Piratas, Mercaderes: La Saga de la Plata Espanola. San Diego, CA: Fondo de Cultura Economica USA, 2001.  

Cohen, J.M., Ed. The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being his own log-book, letters and dispatches with connecting narrative drawn from the life of the Admiral by his son Hernando Colon and other contemporary historians. New York: Penguin Bo

Cortes, Hernan. Letters from Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Fernandez de Oviedo, Gonzalo. Sumario de la Natural Historia de Las Indias. San Diego: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1979.

Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. New York: WW Norton & Co, 2006.

Goodman, Edward J. The Explorers of South America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Keay, John. The Spice Route: A History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Metcalf, Alida C. Go-Between and the Colonization of Brazil, 1500-1600. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Pagden, Anthony. European Encounters with the New World: From Renaissance to Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Pagden, Anthony. Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present. New York: Modern Library Publishers, 2003.

Phillips, William D. and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Pomeranz, Kenneth and Steven Topik. The World that Trade Created. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2005.

Restall, Matthew. The Black Middle: Africans, Mayas, and Spaniards in Colonial Yucatan. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2009.

Seed, Patricia. Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Smith, Roger C. Vanguard of Empire: Ships of Exploration in the Age of Columbus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 

Symcox, Geoffrey and Blair Sullivan. Christopher Columbus and the Enterprise of the Indies.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Syme, Ronald and William Stobbs. Francisco Pizarro: Finder of Peru. New York: William Morrow, 2000.

Vigneras, Louis-Andre. The Discovery of South America and the Andalusian Voyages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. 

Whitman, Sylvia. Hernando de Soto and the Explorers of the American South. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1991.


Films and Videos

1492: Conquest of Paradise (Paramount Pictures, 1992)

Aguirre, Wrath of God  (New Yorker Films, 1971)

Cabeza de Vaca  (Concorde Pictures , 1992)

Chichen Itza: The Fall of the Mayan Empire   (Films for the Humanities and Social Sciences, 1991)

Columbus and the Age of Discovery (WGBH Boston, 1991)

Fall of the Aztec and Maya Empires (Questar, 1999)

Spain in the New World (Films for the Humanities and Social Sciences, 1986)