Source References

Web Sites

The Colombian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds (National Humanities Center): Description of the enormous impact of the Columbian Exchange.

The Colombian Biological Exchange (Georgetown College): A chart depicting species that were transplanted from the Old World to the New and vice-versa.

Seeds of Change Garden  (Smithsonian Institute)


Andrews, Jean. "Diffusion of Mesoamerican Food Complex to Southeastern Europe." Geographical Review. 83: 2 (April 1993): 194-204.

Axtell, James. Beyond 1492: Encounters in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press USA, 1992.

Carney, Judith A. "African Rice in the Columbian Exchange." The Journal of African History. 42: 3 (2001): 377-396.

Coe, Sophie D. and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Cook, Noble David. Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1972. 

Crosby, Alfred. Ecological Imperialism: the Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: WW Norton & Co, 1999.

Grafton, Anthony. New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.

Hirth, Kenneth G. Trade and Exchange in Early Mesoamerica. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. New York: WW Norton & Co, 1976.

McNeil, William H. Plagues and Peoples. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1977.

Phillips, William D. and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Quetel, Claude. History of Syphilis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press USA, 1993.

Todorov, Tzvetan. The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Viola, Herman and Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change: a Quincentennial Commemoration. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.

de Asua, Miguel. A New World Of Animals: Early Modern Europeans On The Creatures Of Iberian America. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. 

Films and Videos

The Columbian Exchange (WGBH, 1991)