Source References

Web Sites

The African Presence in the Americas: 1492-1992 (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture)

Lest We Forget (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture)

Understanding Slavery (Understanding Slavery Initiative)

Captive Passage (The Mariners' Museum)

Africa's Legacy in Mexico (Smithsonian Education)


Bergad, Laird W. Slavery and the Demographic and Economic History of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1720-1888. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bryant, Sherwin K. "Finding Gold, Forming Slavery: The Creation of a Classic Slave Society, Popayan, 1600-1700." The Americas. 63: 1 (July 2006): 81-112.

Chomsky, Aviva and Aldo Lauria-Santiago. Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Cuello, Jose. "The Persistence of Indian Slavery and Encomienda in the Northeast of Colonial Mexico, 1577-1723. In Journal of Social History. 21: 4 (Summer 1988): 683-700.

Dasalles, Pierre. Sugar and Slavery, Family and Race: The Letters and Diary of Pierre Dessalles, Planter in Martinique, 1808-1856. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 

Dunn, Richard S. Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Ferry, Robert J. "Encomienda, African Slavery, and Agriculture in Seventeenth Century Caracas." The Hispanic American Historical Review. 61: 4 (November 1981): 609-635.

Figueroa, Luis A. Sugar, Slavery, and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Galloway, J.H. "Agricultural Reform and the Enlightenment in Late Colonial Brazil." Agricultural History. 53: 4 (October 1979): 763-779.

Hall, Michael R. Sugar and Power in the Dominican Republic: Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the Trujillos. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Haskett, Robert S. "'Our Suffering with the Taxco Tribute': Involuntary Mine Labor and Indigenous Society in Central New Spain." The Hispanic American Historical Review. 71: 3 (August 1991): 447-475.

Higman, B.W. "The Sugar Revolution." The Economic History Review. 53: 2, New Series (May 2000): 213-236.

Higman, B.W. Slave Populations of the British Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2002.

Keith, Robert. Conquest and Agrarian Change: The Emergence of the Hacienda System on the Peruvian Coast. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Lai, Walton Look. Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Menard, Russell R. Sweet Negotiations: Sugar, Slavery, and Plantation Agriculture in Early Barbados. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Paton, Diana. No Bond but the Law: Punishment, Race, and Gender in Jamaican State Formation, 1780-1870. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Pendergrast, Mark. Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Portuando, Maria M. "Plantation Factories: Science and Technology in Late Eighteenth Century Cuba." Technology and Culture. 44 (April 2003): 231-257.

Proctor, Frank T. III. "Afro-Mexican Slave Labor in the Obraje de Panos of New Spain, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." The Americas. 60: 1 (July 2003): 33-58.

Sandiford, Keith. The Cultural Politics of Sugar: Caribbean Slavery and Narratives of Colonialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Schwartz, Stuart B. Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia, 1550-1835 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Solow, Barbara Lewis. British Capitalism and Caribbean Slavery: The Legacy of Eric Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Stein, Stanley J. Silver, Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 

Topik, Steven and Zephyr Frank and Carlos Marichal. From Silver to Cocaine: Latin American Commodity Chains and the Building of the World Economy, 1500-2000. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.

Wild, Antony. Coffee: A Dark History. New York: WW Norton & Co, 2005.

Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Williams, Eric. From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean 1492-1969. New York: Vintage, 1984.

Williams, James. A Narrative of Events, since the First of August, 1834. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001. 

Yeager, Timothy J. "Encomienda or Slavery? The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America." The Journal of Economic History. 55: 4 (December 1995): 842-859.  

Films and Videos

Brazil: An Inconvenient History (BBC Video, 2000)

Commodities: White Gold (First Run Features, 1986)

El Otro Francisco (undefined, 1975)

La Ultima Cena (undefined, 1976)

Quilombo (New Yorker Films, 1984)