Revisiting the Ground Magnetic Field Perturbations Challenge: A Machine Learning Perspective


Pinto V, Keesee A, Coughlan M, Mukundan R, Johnson JW, Ngwira C, Connor HK. Revisiting the Ground Magnetic Field Perturbations Challenge: A Machine Learning Perspective. Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences [Internet]. 2022;9.


Forecasting ground magnetic field perturbations has been a long-standing goal of the space weather community. The availability of ground magnetic field data and its potential to be used in geomagnetically induced current studies, such as risk assessment, have resulted in several forecasting efforts over the past few decades. One particular community effort was the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) challenge of ground magnetic field perturbations that evaluated the predictive capacity of several empirical and first principles models at both mid- and high-latitudes in order to choose an operative model. In this work, we use three different deep learning models-a feed-forward neural network, a long short-term memory recurrent network and a convolutional neural network-to forecast the horizontal component of the ground magnetic field rate of change (dB<sub>H</sub>/dt) over 6 different ground magnetometer stations and to compare as directly as possible with the original GEM challenge. We find that, in general, the models are able to perform at similar levels to those obtained in the original challenge, although the performance depends heavily on the particular storm being evaluated. We then discuss the limitations of such a comparison on the basis that the original challenge was not designed with machine learning algorithms in mind.

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Last updated on 07/07/2022