Publications

1997
Rank G, Debrunner H, Kocharov L, Kovaltsov G, Lockwood J, McConnell M, Mieminen P, Ryan J, Schönfelder V. The Solar Flare Event on 15 June 1991. International Cosmic Ray Conference. 1997;1 :1–1.
Grove JE, Grindlay JE, Harmon BA, Hua X-M, Kazanas D, McConnell M. Galactic Black Hole Binaries: High-Energy Radiation . AIP Conf.Proc. [Internet]. 1997;410 :122. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Observations of galactic BHCs made by the Compton GRO in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands have significantly enhanced our knowledge of the emission properties of these objects. Understanding these observations presents a formidable challenge to theoretical models of the accretion flow onto the compact object and of the physical mechanisms that generate high-energy radiation. Here we summarize the current state of observations and theoretical interpretation of the emission from BHCs above 20 keV. The all-sky monitoring capability of BATSE allows nearly continuous studies of the high-energy emission from more than a dozen BHCs. These long-term datasets are particularly well-suited to multi-wavelength studies. Energy spectral evolution and/or state transitions have been observed from many of the BHCs. Observations above 50 keV from OSSE demonstrate the existence of two gamma ray spectral states that appear to be the extensions of the X-ray low/hard and high/soft (or perhaps very high) states. The former state, the "breaking" state, cuts off with e-folding energy  100 keV and has its peak luminosity near this energy. In contrast, the latter state has luminosity peaking in the soft X-rays and an unbroken power law spectrum, even up to energies above 500 keV in some cases. The breaking gamma-ray spectrum can be well modeled by Comptonization of soft photons in a hot thermal plasma. The power-law state creates more significant theoretical challenges. It has been suggested that in this state the high- energy emission arises from bulk-motion Comptonization in the convergent accretion flow from the inner edge of the accretion disk.

1996
McConnell ML, Boykin V, Kippen RN, Larson K, Macri JR, Mayer M, Ryan JM, Altice PP, Cherry ML, Ellison SB, et al. Balloon-borne coded aperture telescope for arc-minute angular resolution at hard x-ray energies, in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions. Vol 2806. ; 1996 :349–360.
Cherry ML, Altice PP, Ellison SB, Guzik TG, Macri JR, McConnell ML, McLean GY, Ryan JM, Suni PP. Charge-coupled devices with fast timing for astrophysics and space physics research, in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions. Vol 2806. ; 1996 :551–560.
Kippen RM, Ryan J, Connors A, McConnell M, Winkler C, HANLON LO, Schönfelder V, Greiner J, Varendorff M, Collmar W, et al. COMPTEL measurements of MeV gamma-ray burst spectra, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 384. ; 1996 :197–201.
Ryan JM, McConnell MM. COMPTEL solar flare measurements, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 374. ; 1996 :200–209.
Rank G, Bennett K, Bloemen H, Debrunner H, Lockwood J, McConnell M, Ryan J, Schönfelder V, Suleiman R. Extended γ-ray emission in solar flares, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 374. ; 1996 :219–224.
McConnell M, Forrest D, Vestrand WT, Finger M. Hard X-ray polarimetry of solar flares with BATSE, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 374. ; 1996 :368–378.
Connors A, McConnell M. Looking for the source of Hour-long soft X-ray emission following GRB 780506, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 384. ; 1996 :607–611.
Kippen RM, Ryan J, Connors A, McConnell M, Hartmann DH, Winkler C, HANLON LO, Schönfelder V, Greiner J, Varendorff M, et al. The angular distribution of COMPTEL Gamma-Ray bursts, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 384. ; 1996 :436–440.
Connors A, McConnell M, Ryan JM, Kippen RM, Bennett K, Pelaez F, Williams OR, Winkler C, Collmar W, Greiner J, et al. The Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts measured at MeV Energies by CGRO-COMPTEL, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts. Vol 28. ; 1996 :1409–1409.
Ryan JM, Suleiman R, McConnell M, Rank G, Schoenfelder V, Varendorff M, Bennett K, Hermsen W. Energetic Proton Spectral Evolution in the 11 June 1991 Solar Flare, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #188. Vol 28. ; 1996 :857–857.
Rank G, Lockwood J, McConnell M, Ryan J, Suleiman R, Schonfelder V, Bennett K. Extended gamma -Ray Emission of the June 1991 Solar Flares, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #188. Vol 28. ; 1996 :940–940.
McConnell ML, Ryan J, Fletcher S, Diehl R, Schonfelder V, Bloemen H, Hermsen W, Bennett K, van Dijk R. A Map of the Gamma-Ray Sky at 2.223 MeV, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts. Vol 28. ; 1996 :1409–1409.
Mayer M, Boykin V, Cherry ML, Courville JF, Doty FP, Drake A, Guzik TG, Hamel LA, Larson K, Macri JR, et al. Performance of CdZnTe strip detectors as sub-millimeter resolution imaging gamma radiation spectrometers, in Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 1996. IEEE. ; 1996. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We report & gamma;-ray detection performance measurements and computer simulations of a sub-millimeter pitch CdZnTe strip detector. The detector is a prototype for & gamma;-ray astronomy measurements in the range of 20-200 keV. The prototype is a 1.5 mm thick, 64×64 orthogonal stripeCdZnTe detector of 0.375 mm pitch in both dimensions, with approximately one square inch of sensitive area. Using discrete laboratory electronics to process signals from an 8×8 stripe region of the prototype we measured good spectroscopic uniformity and sub-pitch ( 0.2 mm) spatial resolution in both x and y dimensions. We present below measurements of the spatial uniformity, relative timing and pulse height of the anode and cathode signals, and the photon detection efficiency. We also present a technique for determining the location of the event in the third dimension (depth). We simulated the photon interactions and signal generation in the strip detector and the test electronics and we compare these results with the data. The data indicate that the cathode signal-as well as the anode signal-arises more strongly from the conduction electrons rather than the holes.
Macri JR, Boykin V, Larson K, Mayer M, McConnell ML, Ryan JM, Cherry ML, Guzik TG, Apotovsky BA, Butler JF, et al. Progress in the development of large-area submillimeter-resolution CdZnTe strip detectors, in Hard X-Ray/Gamma-Ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications. Vol 2859. ; 1996 :29–36.
Young CA, McConnell ML, Rank G, Ryan JM, Schonfelder V, Bennett K, Cliver E, Miller R, MacKinnon A. A Search for MeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Quiet-Time Sun, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts. Vol 28. ; 1996 :1298–1298.
Rank G, Lockwood J, McConnell M, Ryan J, Schonfelder V, Bennett K, Debrunner H, Nieminen P, Kocharov L, Kovaltsov G. The Solar Flare Event on 15 June 1991, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts. Vol 28. ; 1996 :1298–1298.
McConnell M, Forrest D, Vestrand WT, Finger M. Using BATSE to measure gamma-ray burst polarization, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series. Vol 384. ; 1996 :851–855.
van Dijk R, Bennett K, Bloemen H, Collmar W, Connors A, Diehl R, Hermsen W, Lichti GG, McConnell M, Much R, et al. COMPTEL detection of the high-energy gamma-ray source 2CG 135+01. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS [Internet]. 1996;315 :485–492. Publisher's Version

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